India Semiconductor Mission -sachi shiksha

India Semiconductor Mission

Driving Innovation and Self-Reliance in Semiconductor Manufacturing

Introduction to India Semiconductor Mission

The India Semiconductor Mission (ISM) is a pivotal initiative to bolster India’s capabilities in semiconductor manufacturing, a crucial aspect of modern technology. Semiconductor chips are the backbone of various electronic devices, powering everything from smart phones to advanced machinery.

Historically, India has heavily relied on imports for semiconductor components, posing challenges regarding self-reliance, security, and innovation. In response, the Indian government launched the ISM to foster indigenous semiconductor manufacturing, aligning with the vision of achieving technological self-sufficiency and becoming a global leader in innovation.

Background and Context

India’s journey towards semiconductor self-reliance began with the realization of its dependence on imports, predominantly from countries like Taiwan, South Korea, and the United States. This dependency exposed India to supply chain vulnerabilities and limited its control over crucial technologies. Recognizing the strategic importance of semiconductor manufacturing, the Indian government initiated the ISM in 2007 under the Department of Information Technology (now the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology).

The Objectives of India Semiconductor Mission

The primary objectives of the ISM revolve around fostering semiconductor research, development, and manufacturing within the country. These objectives include:

  1. Promoting Research and Development (R&D):The ISM encourages R&D activities in semiconductor technologies, facilitating innovation and indigenous intellectual property creation. By investing in cutting-edge research, India seeks to develop next-generation semiconductor solutions tailored to its needs.
  2. Establishing Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities:Central to the ISM’s goals is the establishment of semiconductor fabrication facilities, often referred to as fabs. These fabs serve as the manufacturing hubs for semiconductor chips, enabling localized production and reducing dependency on imports.
  3. Encouraging Industry Collaboration:The ISM seeks to foster collaboration between government agencies, academia, and industry stakeholders. By leveraging collective expertise and resources, India aims to accelerate the development and adoption of semiconductor technologies.
  4. Human Resource Development:To support the semiconductor industry’s growth, the ISM focuses on developing a knowledgeable labor force with the required proficiency in semiconductor design, fabrication, and testing. This involves initiatives such as specialized training programs and academic partnerships.

Key Initiatives under the India Semiconductor Mission

Over the years, the ISM has launched several initiatives to achieve its objectives and propel India towards semiconductor self-reliance. Some of the key initiatives include:

  1. Semiconductor Wafer Fabrication (FAB) Units:One of the flagship initiatives of the ISM involves setting up semiconductor fabrication units, commonly known as fabs. These fabs serve as the cornerstone of indigenous semiconductor manufacturing, capable of producing advanced chips for various applications.
  2. Electronics Manufacturing Clusters (EMCs):The ISM promotes the development of Electronics Manufacturing Clusters (EMCs) equipped with state-of-the-art infrastructure and amenities. These clusters provide a conducive environment for semiconductor companies to establish their operations, fostering a robust ecosystem for innovation and production.
  3. Technology Incubation and Start-up Support:Recognizing the role of start-ups in driving innovation, the ISM provides support for technology incubation and start-up initiatives in the semiconductor domain. This support includes funding, mentorship, and access to specialized facilities to nurture entrepreneurial ventures.
  4. Research and Development Grants:The ISM allocates funds for semiconductor-related research and development projects undertaken by academic institutions, research organizations, and industry players. These grants aim to stimulate innovation and technological breakthroughs in semiconductor technologies.
  5. Skill Development Programs:To address the shortage of skilled manpower in the semiconductor industry, the ISM sponsors skill development programs and training workshops. These initiatives seek to improve participants’ employability and interest in pursuing careers in semiconductor design, fabrication, and testing.

Achievements and Milestones

Since its inception, the ISM has made significant strides toward its objectives, marking several milestones. Some notable achievements include:

  1. Establishment of Semiconductor Fabs:The ISM has facilitated the establishment of semiconductor fabrication units in India, including public-private partnerships and collaborations with global semiconductor companies. These fabs represent a crucial step towards domestic semiconductor manufacturing capabilities.
  2. Increase in Domestic Production:With the commissioning of semiconductor fabs and the growth of electronics manufacturing clusters, India has witnessed a steady increase in domestic semiconductor production. This has helped reduce reliance on imports and strengthen the country’s self-reliance in critical technology components.
  3. Emergence of Semiconductor Start-ups: The ISM’s support for technology incubation and start-up initiatives has led to semiconductor start-ups nationwide. These start-ups are driving innovation in chip design, embedded systems, and semiconductor materials, contributing to India’s semiconductor ecosystem’s vibrancy.
  4. Collaboration with Global Players:The ISM has facilitated knowledge exchange and technology transfer with leading global semiconductor companies through strategic partnerships and collaborations. These collaborations have enabled Indian firms to leverage international expertise and accelerate their growth trajectory.

Challenges and Future Outlook

Despite its achievements, the ISM faces several challenges on its path towards semiconductor self-reliance. These challenges include:

  1. Infrastructure and Investment:Establishing semiconductor fabs requires significant infrastructure investment and technological expertise. India needs to strengthen its infrastructure further and attract investments to scale up semiconductor manufacturing capabilities.
  2. Talent Pool Development:Developing a skilled workforce with expertise in semiconductor technologies remains a critical challenge. India must enhance its educational and training infrastructure to meet the growing demand for semiconductor professionals.
  3. Global Competition:The semiconductor market is highly cutthroat, with established players dominating the market. India must differentiate through innovation, quality, and cost competitiveness to gain a foothold in the global semiconductor landscape.
  4. Policy and Regulatory Framework:A conducive policy and regulatory environment is essential to support semiconductor manufacturing and innovation. India must streamline regulations, offer incentives, and provide a stable policy framework to attract investment and foster industry growth.


The ISM holds immense potential to propel India towards self-reliance and position the country as an international center for innovation and semiconductor manufacturing. By addressing challenges and leveraging its strengths, India can harness the transformative power of semiconductor technologies to drive economic growth, enhance national security, and foster technological innovation across sectors.


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